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Blue Bike Blog

Exercise May Improve Gaming Performance

From Club Industry:

Exercise can improve cognitive function and advance mental performance, according to a study from ASICS.  

Exercise increased short-term memory, concentration levels and gaming performance, a study conducted May-September 2022 of 77 gamers from 20 countries found.  ASICS invited competitive gamers from around the world, specializing in mind games such as chess and e-sports and who rely on their cognitive function, to start an exercise program.

After four months of regular exercise, participants’ saw the following individual improvements:

  • International gaming rankings up 75% 
  • Cognitive function up 10%
  • Problem-solving abilities up 9%
  • Short-term memory up 12%
  • Processing speed and alertness up 10%

As a group,  confidence levels increased by 44%, concentration improved by 33% and anxiety levels plummeted by 43%.

The research shows exercise can be as effective at boosting brain function as learning a second language, daily reading, playing a new musical instrument or completing a puzzle every day, the authors said.  Professor Brendon Stubbs, a researcher in movement and the mind, developed and led the experiment. Each gamer followed a training program designed by runner turned international coach Andrew Kastor. The program included medium impact cardio and strength training and increased the gamers’ exercise levels to 150 minutes per week.

Stubbs measured the mental improvement of the participants based on their performance in their mind games, cognitive tests and well-being questionnaires over the course of their four-month research period.  "We all know that exercise is good for our mental and physical health, but the impact on cognitive functioning has been less explored,” Stubbs said. “We wanted to examine the effects of exercise on people who depend on their cognitive abilities — competitive mind gamers. Our results show significant improvements in their cognitive functioning, including concentration levels and problem-solving abilities.”

Exercise stimulates cell growth in the brain and rapidly increases blood flow to the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, mechanisms that enable people to better retain memories, process information and problem solve quickly, Stubbs said.

“If exercise can significantly increase the mental performance of professional mind gamers, imagine what it could do for the rest of us,” he said. “From increasing focus when [studying] for an exam or improving alertness before a work presentation, exercise truly can enhance brain power."

The study also found that the gamers’ mental well-being increase with average State of Mind scores improving by 31 percent from an average state of mind score at the start of the study below 58 to a high of 76 at the end of the study.

"These results are astonishing and speak to the power of exercise,” Kastor said. “Many of the gamers couldn’t jog for longer than a minute at the start of the study, so their training program had to be moderate. One hundred and fifty minutes a week sounds like a lot, but when you break it down, this could be five sets of 30 minutes. No matter your fitness levels, the mental benefits of exercise are accessible to all."

Inspired by this study, four competitive gamers began a regular exercise to improve their rankings on the international stage as a camera crew followed them. That film, “Mind Games – The Experiment,” is now available on Prime Video.

Club News, Fitness Tips, Words of Wellness and so much more!

Make It - Break It

If you are starting 2023 wanting to make some changes, you are not alone. Big changes are hard to sustain over the long term. Also, unbalanced changes lead to feelings of deprivation and stress. A sustainable approach is to tackle no more than two habits at a time, balancing stopping an old habit with picking up a new one.

The Make It – Break It Challenge is a three-week challenge where you choose a habit to MAKE (drinking 64 ounces of water, walking 20 minutes, going to bed 30 minutes earlier) and a habit to BREAK (avoiding added sugar, reducing social media time by 15 minutes, or drinking one less soda per day).

It can take 21 days for a habit to start to “stick” so this challenge will last three weeks, from January 22nd - February 11th.

Track your progress daily giving yourself a score of 0-3 points:

  • 3 Points – Nailed It! You practiced both of your habits 100% of the day
  • 2 Points – Good Job! You practiced both of your habits 50-95% of the day or perhaps you did one 100% and not the other.
  • 1 Point – You Tried! You practiced your habits 10-49% of the day
  • 0 Points – Oops! You didn’t get around to it at all today

Win Prizes: We are giving a $25 Scheel’s Gift card to the person who scores the most points during the three-week challenge. Any tie will be broken by a drawing.  We will also hold random drawings for weekly prizes including water bottles, Air Relax sessions, and more. The more points you score the more chances you will have to win. Score 21 points in a week, your name goes into the drawing 21 times.

Daily Accountability: You will receive a short e-mail each morning with a motivational quote or tip and asking you to reply with your points total from the previous day. (You can opt out of this and just show us your log). For added accountability and to fuel your competitive fires we will post everyone’s progress on a special bulletin board display.

Get started:  Sign up online here:

or Complete the “Count Me In” form  at the club and turn it in with your entry fee of $19 no later than Thursday, January 19th. 

Time to Come Back Reason #2: Accountability

Even if you do get yourself to work out at home, it's easy to put in a mediocre performance. You may not push yourself as hard or finish the full workout.  A fitness Class, personal trainer or just the environment at the club can give you the push you need to put in the extra effort or do just a few more reps. 

At Blue Bike Fitness we offer classes for all levels, highly qualified trainers in a welcoming, positive environment. We are here for your success. It's time to come back!

Time to Come Back Reason #1: The Club Environment

Working out at home may tide you over when you can't go to the club, but ask yourself: do you really put as much into a workout done in your basement? When you go to a specific place for a specific purpose, you're more likely to stay focused on the task at hand.

It's nice to go to a place away from home where everyone is focusing on health and fitness. At the club, you can enjoy the environment and everything it includes, such as friendship and fitness classes. There's an energy, a vibe, a feeling of purpose and belonging that you can't fully capture at home. It's time to come back. 

Surprising Truths About Powerlifting

This past May, Blue Bike Fitness hosted the NASA MOKAN Powerlifting Regional. They are set to return for another meet on October 2nd.   In case you are wondering, NASA has nothing to do with the space program. It stands for Natural Athlete Strength Association, an organization devoted to natural, drug-free powerlifting. Now that we've hosted what looks to be the first of many meets, I'd like to take this opportunity to thank everyone who worked hard to make it a success AND to respond to the questions and interest that arose.

What is powerlifting? Powerlifting is a strength sport consisting of three lifts: squat, bench press and deadlift. Each participant has three attempts at a 1 rep max in each of the three lifts. The weights are added together for the total score. Powerlifting differs from Olympic Weightlifting which consists of two lifts, the snatch and the clean & jerk.

Powerlifters come in all shapes and sizes. There are weight categories for both men and women as well as age groups ranging from 12 to 80 years old. At our meet, we had competitors from their teens to their 70's, including students, moms, and desk workers. You don't have to be elite to compete. You just need a desire to get stronger and push your own personal limits.

Powerlifting has physical and mental health benefits. It increases overall body strength especially legs, back and upper body. That strength can lead to better performance with a reduced risk of injury, whether competing in other sports or tackling yard work. Stronger muscles also mean stronger bones. Powerlifting improves both mood and cognitive function, whether from the emotional release from the exertion of picking up a heavy object or the focus required to properly execute each lift.

Another way to Belong and Be Strong. Powerlifters are supportive of each other. What I witnessed at this meet was a group that made everyone feel welcomed, not intimidated. Family, friends and other competitors were heard cheering every lift, no matter how much or how little was loaded on the bar. It really was a special kind of energy.

Interested in Learning More? Are you ready to learn more about the basics of powerlifting and what is involved in a training regimen? Tyler Triggs, one of our Wellness Pros helped bring this meet to Blue Bike Fitness. As an Athletic Trainer and Strength Coach, he would love to help you learn more about Powerlifting. Tyler is putting together a workshop on Powerlifting Basics to be held on a Saturday (August 28th) or Sunday (August 29th, or September 12th or September 19th). If you are would like to participate, drop us an email at or sign up at the front desk. .  

Honoring Wayman Snead

Wayman Snead joined the team at Bene-Fit Health & Fitness shortly after the club opened in 2004.  Having retired, but still wanting to work part time, the health club  was a perfect fit enabling him to share his enthusiasm for exercise with new people as well as  neighborhood friends.

When on duty, he was a welcoming presence at the front desk. He took pride in keeping the facility clean and inviting for members.  If traffic was slow at the front desk, he'd be up running the vacuum, cleaning mirrors and windows and wiping down equipment.  Even off the clock, he joined in several Group Exercise classes each week, keeping up with those half his age. 

Wayman was a no-nonsense guy. He didn't sugarcoat things so he sometimes came off as gruff. But it wasn't hard to see that underneath it all, there was a heart of gold. Wayman cared about others. Stories would surface about his buying someone a meal or putting a homeless woman up in a hotel for a few cold winter nights. He seemed to understand that the gym was more than a collection of treadmills and barbells, it was a place where people would come to connect

Wayman was looking forward to being a part of Blue Bicycle Health & Fitness, but passed away in July 2016 after a short illness.  Even though he is no longer with us physically, I always wanted to keep his memory alive. After five years of renovations and COVID we are now ready to honor his legacy at the club. 

Join us at 10 AM on Saturday, July 17th for the unveiling of Wayman's Wall

Time to Get Real: Real Struggles Lead to Real Strength

Wellness is so much more than working out.  My dream has always been for Blue Bike Fitness to become a trusted health and wellness resource for South KC and beyond by bringing together a highly qualified team of trainers and wellness pros under our roof.  Our team was shaping up nicely.  Then COVID crashed our party.  We've spent the past year doing damage control, thanks to this unwanted guest.  Like so many of you, we’re more than ready to shift out of survival mode and get back on track.

Emerging from this chaotic and challenging year, my intent was to write a blog post to brag a bit about our team.  Not just our blend of knowledge, passion and compassion, but our shared belief that quick fixes and body shaming aren’t compatible with physical, mental and spiritual health. We are a team that will be real about what it takes to make meaningful and lasting changes. We are a team that embraces the idea that a healthy body starts on the inside.  But I was stuck. 

So why was it so hard to get started? It turns out that I couldn’t write about being real with you all until I got real with myself. Even as I work to grow this business around helping people live healthier lives, I continually struggle to make my own health and wellness a priority. Whether fighting through mental fog from lack of sleep or allowing worry and anxiety to take up too much space in my brain, my ability to deny and downplay my own mental and physical exhaustion forced me to look into the mirror and see a hypocrite starting back.

I’ve always despised hypocrisy. Seeing myself as a hypocrite makes it easy to turn those feelings inward, telling myself that I don’t deserve to invest time, effort, and resources into my own health and well-being. The alternative is to own it and do better. That means being honest with myself first and then with those for I work with and for those I work for.

Yes, I am a hypocrite. I suppose that is a human tendency. But beating myself up isn’t a good way to change anything. I have to embrace what I tell so many others. It isn’t selfish to make self-care a priority. It means accepting that I can’t fix everything. It means being more fully present to discern when to push and when to step back. Ultimately, it requires brutal honesty with myself first and only then with you.  

So what does that have to do with our team?  We've seen the superficial side of the fitness industry, the side that focuses on the body in the mirror. But we are here to help you see that health and wellness go so much deeper.  Sure, we have certifications and degrees, but ultimately, it is our struggles that empower us help us help you. 

What a Year!  

March 16, 2021

I believe I speak for many in saying that it feels like we've lived a decade in the past 12 months. Blue Bike Fitness started 2020 finally poised for growth with most renovations completed, a highly qualified team of wellness pros assembled, and programs in the works to help both our members and the surrounding community gather, belong and move. Even as the pandemic started gaining momentum in late February and early March of 2020, it seemed that a few adjustments to our plans would suffice. Our main concern was finding enough hand sanitizer and Lysol to keep up with the increased consumption of both in our facility. Boy did that change fast!

A year ago today, I taught my first video class and what ended up being the final Group Ex class in Studio 1. Less than 24 hours later, we shut down for what was expected to be a couple of weeks to flatten the curve. Those two weeks became two months of closure morphing into 10 months and counting, of adjusting to evolving city restrictions while investing in numerous tools to keep those of you working out in the facility safe while staying connected with many of you at home.

It's been a steep learning curve for all of us. A year later, I've learned more about technology, ventilation, supply chains, local government and resilience than I would have ever imagined. I empathize with so many of you who have also faced profound change or suffered any type of loss. Yet, there is a silver lining in the awakening and discovery of strengths we never knew we had.

The vaccine is a light at the end of a long dark tunnel, but we aren't out of that tunnel just yet. We've all been in survival mode in so many ways. We are all so ready to move past this, but until enough are vaccinated, we are still subject to restrictions as mandated by the City of KCMO, including masks covering the mouth and NOSE.

Watch for some great programs in the coming months, both in-person and online. COVID reminded us that our health is precious and that we are all stronger than we thought. Let's use our strengths to build healthier habits as we emerge from this pandemic. Our team will be here to help!  Be strong...Belong!

Working Out with a Mask: Addressing Your Concerns

November 16, 2020

'Rona is on a roll. No matter how you look at it, its impact is being felt throughout our community and more importantly, within our health care infrastructure. In an effort to reign in 'Rona, Mayor Lucas beefed up the mask mandate this week. Face coverings must now be worn when exercising indoors at health clubs in Kansas City, MO

The good news is that we've avoided another total shutdown. For now.  Of course, the downside are new concerns that come with wearing a face mask while working out. Don't get me wrong. Nothing would delight me more than dousing all of my masks in hand sanitizer and and tossing a lit match on that mess. The time will come when we can do that. But for now, beyond the hassle and discomfort, are we just trading one health hazard for another? 

Like anything related to exercise, wearing a mask impacts some of us more than others. Our heart and lungs work must harder to overcome the resistance of breathing through a barrier. This means that your heart rate may run 8-10 beats per minute higher when exercising at your  usual intensity (2). Masks can also reduce the amount of oxygen in the air you breathe. In one study, in a room at sea level, that amount dropped from 21% to 17% after passing through a cloth mask. That 17% is what you would experience in Denver, CO (4). 

Most of us can tolerate or compensate for these factors by dialing back our intensity, altering work-recovery intervals or shifting from cardio towards more strength training (3). The presence of a respiratory condition such as asthma may require greater reductions in intensity or opting to wear a face shield which is permitted under the current mandate (1). 

I don't need to tell you that 2020 has been a tough year. And now, this beefed up mask mandate comes along, making your workouts tougher. Consider this silver lining. Tough workouts have a pay-off. You get stronger by progressively overloading your cardiovascular system and muscles. Masks create overload. Manage that overload by paying attention to your body's signals like breathing rates, fatigue and heart rate and any symptoms like dizziness or feelings of anxiety (1). Make adjustments but stay the course. Your body will adapt. 

What to wear? As long as your nose and mouth are covered, you have several options. Many athletic apparel companies (Athleta, Adidas, Reebok, Under Armor, BOCO, et. al.) offer workout masks made of lightweight, moisture wicking materials such as Spandex or polyester. A clear plastic shield like the one Andy Reid has worn is also acceptable. Gaiters are another option, but they are more likely to trap heat around your nose, mouth and neck (1). 

You've made exercise a part of your lifestyle because of the many benefits for your body and mind.  Your membership at Blue Bike Fitness keeps you connected with your community, even when we must maintain social distancing. 'Rona has taken away so much this year. Don't let it take these things. Right now we need your help in keeping our community safe and our doors open. When we get past all of this, we'll have some masks to burn. 


1. Capritto, A. (2020). Exercising with a Face Mask: The Do's and Don'ts. 

2. Hargreaves, M. (2016). Metabolic factors in fatigue. Sport Science Exchange, 29, 155, 1–5.

3. Joyner M.J., Casey D.P. Regulation of increased blood flow (hyperemia) to muscles during exercise: a hierarchy of competing physiological needs. Physiol Rev. 2015;95(2):549–601. [PubMed]

4. Melnikov V.N., Divert V.E., Komlyagina T.G., Consedine N.S. Krivoschekov SG. Baseline values of cardiovascular and respiratory parameters predict response to acute hypoxia in young healthy men. Physiol Res. 2017;66(3):467–479. [PubMed]

Check Out our Shiny New App!

August 19, 2020

We are pleased to announce a new and easy way for you to access club information, schedules, and more with our new mobile app, MemberMe! You can now view and book into classes, access your self service portal, and find the latest updates including photos and videos, right from your smartphone. In addition, you can also share updates via Facebook, where friends can feel free to join you on your endeavor to get fit and stay healthy.

MemberMe+ App: If you have a smartphone, you can download our MemberMe+ App. Flyers are also posted in the facility where you can scan a QR code to access the app. Once it is installed and opened, you will need a username and password. If you are already using the self service portal, click on the globe icon just below the bike picture to access it. We can retrieve your username and reset your password upon request. Please let us know if you have questions or are experiencing issues.

Phone App Check-in: Once you have your app installed and connected to your account you can pull up an electronic membership card. Scan the bar code to check-in at the front desk. We are happy to help you get set up. Still have a flip phone? Prefer not to use the app? No worries! You can still check in by giving your name.

Reservations No Longer Needed: The city has no current occupancy limit for health clubs. With 10,000 square feet of workout space, we are going to raise our limit to 36 which is 20% of our occupancy rating. We will continue to evaluate how best to safely use our space.

Mask Required for Entry: Most of you are doing great, but PLEASE wear a mask when entering and moving through common areas. Once exercising, you can remove your mask as long as a distance of six feet can be maintained. 

Keeping You Safe

August 19, 2020

I wanted to clarify our mask policy and provide updates on steps we are taking to keep you safe.

Masks: KCMO has extended the mask mandate into January 2021. Per that mandate, masks are required in indoor spaces where a distance of at least six feet cannot be maintained. To ensure compliance, face masks must be worn upon entry and when passing through common areas (including locker rooms). Masks can be removed when exercising as long as that six foot distance is maintained.

We are looking times in the early afternoon when usage is very low as times for those who are more vulnerable. Masks will be mandatory, even while exercising, during these times. It would amount to 3-6 hours per week. We are also looking at ways to further segregate a few select pieces of equipment.

Equipment Wipes: We are currently going though as many wipes in three weeks as were being used per month pre-COVID. That is with less than half as many check-ins. Our supplier has been struggling to keep up so we are prepared to switch over to spray disinfectant and paper towels should the need arise.

Force of Nature: The potential need to implement spray disinfectant and paper towels added to our concern about the amount of toxic chemicals we are using to fight germs. We started using Force of Nature this month. It uses electricity to change tap water plus a capsule of salt, water and vinegar into a powerful disinfectant that is EPA registered to kill 99.9% of germs. It's the same process that is used to sanitize salt water pools. If you wish to purchase Force of Nature for your home or business, click through this link,  You will save 20% and we will get 25 free capsules. Win-Win!

We will still continue spraying down all surfaces overnight with a hospital grade disinfectant and Sherry will continue cleaning every individual piece of equipment, top to bottom, with Lysol at least twice per week. We are using Force of Nature on high touch areas that have to be sanitized several times a day (door handles, etc).

Hang in There! We are all going to be on this roller coaster for a while. Your continued support will help us make it through to the other side. Your patience while we develop ways safely keep serving you is greatly appreciated! 

While We Must Remain Apart

April 8, 2020

I hope this finds you well. If anything has been reinforced these past few weeks, it is the fact that you all are the lifeblood of this club. It just isn't the same without you here.

Emails: Because this is our best way of communicating, I went through EVERY single member record to check on email status. If you gave us a new email address or joined within the past two years, our system has an opt-in feature that is very easy to miss. If not opted in, you don't receive email blasts. I opted everyone in. 

Re-Opening Game Plan: We had originally anticipated re-opening on April 1st. The "Stay at Home" order that went into effect on March 24th, pushed that re-opening date back to at least April 24th. It is expected that when these orders are lifted, it will done gradually. We are setting up a "Workout by Appointment" system where we can set the number of slots in accordance with the limits imposed. If the limit is 10, we will have 8-9 slots + 1-2 staff on the premises. Watch for more details.

Self Service Portal: All current members will be receiving a follow up email to opt into self-service. This is your own personal portal where you will create a username and password. Once in, you will see that we have begun to build a VIDEO LIBRARY of workouts you can do at home. This will also be the platform for scheduling the workout appointments mentioned above.

Thank you for your continued support. Stay Safe. Stay Well. Stay Home.

Let's Support Each Other

March 21, 2020

As part of a city mandated lock-down, Blue Bicycle Health & Fitness closed down for a yet to be determined period of time, effective March 17th.

The support so many of you have shown this week means a lot. This pandemic has forced  small businesses to take drastic steps for the safety and well-being of our community. The Red Bridge Shopping Center has literally been rebuilt by several small businesses. Please consider supporting these businesses any way that you can. Grab a cup of coffee...a gift card...a meal to go.

The best thing you can do to help us is to keep your membership. While we will honor requests to freeze or cancel, monthly memberships are our lifeblood. We've kept our staff on the payroll deep cleaning and working on facility projects. We started streaming several of our classes and will continue to do so as long as needed. We hope that you'll be here for us now so that we can be here for you later. Together, we will get through this!

To Our Members About the Coronavirus

March 15, 2020

We know that you may have concerns with respect to the COVID19 coronavirus. We understand and share your concerns and want you to know that your health and wellness are our top priority. When this outbreak was beginning to develop, we took the following steps:

  • Placed additional Hand Sanitizer bottles throughout the facility
  • Added a fourth Zogics Wipes dispenser. Details about the ingredients are posted above each dispenser
  • Increased cleaning and sanitizing of class props, and other high touch areas.

You all have stepped up by wiping down the equipment you use more frequently and more thoroughly. You are washing your hands more as well. You are staying away if not feeling well. These efforts make it safer for everyone and are greatly appreciated.

Our plan is to stay open and continue to offer classes and programs as scheduled, but we will be monitoring the situation as it evolves. In the meantime, we are taking additional steps:

  • Offering Direct Check-in. If the front desk is attended and you wish to avoid using the fingerprint scanner or our pen, just give your name and we will check you in manually.
  • Exploring ways to put class content online.

We need you to keep up the great work and consider these additional steps:

  • Keeping more space between yourself and the person exercising next to you.
  • Wiping down equipment before using it as well as after.

Exercising can boost your immune system and we all know how important that can be right now. Please reach out if you have any concerns or questions not addressed here. We'll get through this together.

Success Stories Written Here!

February 14, 2020

I was covering the front desk over a Friday noon hour when loud cheering erupted from the free weight area. I had to see what it was about, so I walked back there to check it out. One of our members had just benched 415 pounds! There were high fives and congrats around. Not just with those in the weight area, but among those using the Nu-Steps and treadmills.

The lift in energy and mood was contagious and it made me think back to another member success from earlier that same day. A lady who had been in so much pain that her mobility was becoming more and more limited decided to work through her pain only to find that it subsided as she grew stronger. Since becoming a daily exerciser, she had lost 30 pounds. While her milestone was more low key and didn’t have the place cheering, it was no less meaningful.

Blue Bicycle Health & Fitness is a fitness community as these two very different victories illustrate. Our members are all ages and sizes, athletes and active seniors, people wanting to build bicep muscles and people wanting heal a heart muscle. 

I’ve been asked if there is a target audience. My response is that our target is anyone seeking a welcoming, supportive place to improve their health and well-being. No matter where you are in life, you will find people here who are very much like you. You can tap into the positive energy of everyday victories to rekindle your own fire within. Your story is being written day. Our community will help make yours a success story.

Creatures of Habit

January 15, 2020

Habits are the foundation of building a better you. Success coach John Maxwell says “You’ll never change your life until you change something you do daily.” How you go about changing your habits can determine whether those changes will stick for only a week or two or become established as part of your way of life.

Habits are hard to change. They are behaviors that have become ingrained, sometimes over many years. When you decide you want to get into better shape, it is tempting to try and change everything at once. The reality is that many of us don’t do several things well simultaneously. Leo Babauta, bestselling author and creator of estimates that people who focus on changing one behavior at a time are more likely to retain that habit a year or more 80% of the time. When they try to change more than two at a time, that retention drops to around 20%. Focus on one or two things. You either do those things or you don’t. Then seek explanations without making excuses or beating yourself up.

Much like the choices faced by Goldilocks, habit changes can be too small, aka too easy, they can be too big, aka too hard or they can be just right. Like the three bears, this is not one size fits all. Ask yourself if you can see yourself doing this for the rest of your life. More drastic changes can be made for a pre-determined short term period of time. The Whole30 Challenge is an example. How do you react to drastic change? Can you step back to that “just right” point at the end of the time period or do you rebound back to your old habits with a vengeance.

  • Find YOUR starting point. Identify one or two habits to change. It may be doing more cardio. It may be eating more veggies.
  • Clarify the desired habit and make it measureable. For example, doing more cardio may mean walking on the treadmill for 30 minutes every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday morning. Eating more veggies is clearer when stated as adding a fist-sized portion to each meal.
  • Check your confidence. On a scale of 1-10, one being impossible and 10 be easy, rate your commitment to making this change. If it is less than six, assess what you would need to do to raise that number or consider a different habit to tackle.

How can we help? We can meet with you to determine that starting point and determine your realistic next step. Willpower and discipline are finite resources. A habit that has time to get fully established will ultimately require less of both. Reaching that point is a continuous process of assessment and adjustment.

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